How replication and division processes are coordinated in the cell cycle is a fundamental yet poorly understood question in cell biology. In Escherichia coli different data sets and models have supported a range of conclusions from one extreme where these two processes are tightly linked to another extreme where these processes are completely independent of each other. Using high throughput optical microscopy and cell cycle modeling, we show that in slow growth conditions replication and division processes are strongly correlated, indicating a significant coupling between replication and division. This coupling weakens as the growth rate of cells increases. Our data suggest that the underlying control mechanism in slow growth conditions is related to unreplicated chromosome blocking the onset of constriction at the midcell. We show that the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA does not play a role in this process and neither do other known factors involved in positioning bacterial Z-ring relative to the chromosome. Altogether this work reconciles different ideas from the past and brings out a more nuanced role of replication in controlling the division process in a growth-rate dependent manner.
Scientists have observed and studied diffusive waves in contexts as disparate as population genetics and cell signaling. Often, these waves are propagated by discrete entities or agents, such as individual cells in the case of cell signaling. For a broad class of diffusive waves, we characterize the transition between the collective propagation of diffusive waves -- in which the wave speed is well-described by continuum theory -- and the propagation of diffusive waves by individual agents. We show that this transition depends heavily on the dimensionality of the system in which the wave propagates and that disordered systems yield dynamics largely consistent with lattice systems. In some system dimensionalities, the intuition that closely packed sources more accurately mimic a continuum can be grossly violated.
Gene expression is a stochastic process. Despite the increase of protein numbers in growing cells, the protein concentrations are often found to be confined within small ranges throughout the cell cycle. Generally, the noise in protein concentration can be decomposed into an intrinsic and an extrinsic component, where the former vanishes for high expression levels. Considering the time trajectory of protein concentration as a random walker in the concentration space, an effective restoring force (with a corresponding “spring constant”) must exist to prevent the divergence of concentration due to random fluctuations. In this work, we prove that the magnitude of the effective spring constant is directly related to the fraction of intrinsic noise in the total protein concentration noise. We show that one can infer the magnitude of intrinsic, extrinsic, and measurement noises of gene expression solely based on time-resolved data of protein concentration, without any a priori knowledge of the underlying gene expression dynamics. We apply this method to experimental data of single-cell bacterial gene expression. The results allow us to estimate the average copy numbers and the translation burst parameters of the studied proteins.
Homeostasis of protein concentrations in cells is crucial for their proper functioning, requiring steady-state concentrations to be stable to fluctuations. Since gene expression is regulated by proteins such as transcription factors (TFs), the full set of proteins within the cell constitutes a large system of interacting components, which can become unstable. We explore factors affecting stability by coupling the dynamics of mRNAs and proteins in a growing cell. We find that mRNA degradation rate does not affect stability, contrary to previous claims. However, global structural features of the network can dramatically enhance stability. Importantly, a network resembling a bipartite graph with a lower fraction of interactions that target TFs has a higher chance of being stable. Scrambling the E. coli transcription network, we find that the biological network is significantly more stable than its randomized counterpart, suggesting that stability constraints may have shaped network structure during the course of evolution.
Many unicellular organisms allocate their key proteins asymmetrically between the mother and daughter cells, especially in a stressed environment. A recent theoretical model is able to predict when the asymmetry in segregation of key proteins enhances the population fitness, extrapolating the solution at two limits where the segregation is perfectly asymmetric (asymmetry a = 1) and when the asymmetry is small (0≤a≪1). We generalize the model by introducing stochasticity and use a transport equation to obtain a self-consistent equation for the population growth rate and the distribution of the amount of key proteins. We provide two ways of solving the self-consistent equation: numerically by updating the solution for the self-consistent equation iteratively and analytically by expanding moments of the distribution. With these more powerful tools, we can extend the previous model by Lin et al. to include stochasticity to the segregation asymmetry. We show the stochastic model is equivalent to the deterministic one with a modified effective asymmetry parameter (a_eff). We discuss the biological implication of our models and compare with other theoretical models.
In biological contexts as diverse as development, apoptosis, and synthetic microbial consortia, collections of cells or sub-cellular components have been shown to overcome the slow signaling speed of simple diffusion by utilizing diffusive relays, in which the presence of one type of diffusible signaling molecule triggers participation in the emission of the same type of molecule. This collective effect gives rise to fast-traveling diffusive waves. Here, in the context of cell signaling, we show that system dimensionality – the shape of the extracellular medium and the distribution of cells within it – can dramatically affect the wave dynamics, but that these dynamics are insensitive to details of cellular activation. As an example, we show that neutrophil swarming experiments exhibit dynamical signatures consistent with the proposed signaling motif. We further show that cell signaling relays generate much steeper concentration profiles than does simple diffusion, which may facilitate neutrophil chemotaxis.
Microbial populations show striking diversity in cell growth morphology and lifecycle; however, our understanding of how these factors influence the growth rate of cell populations remains limited. We use theory and simulations to predict the impact of asymmetric cell division, cell size regulation and single-cell stochasticity on the population growth rate. Our model predicts that coarse-grained noise in the single-cell growth rate decreases the population growth rate, as previously seen for symmetrically dividing cells. However, for a given noise in the single-cell growth rate we find that dividing asymmetrically can enhance the population growth rate for cells with strong size control (between a sizer and an adder). To reconcile this finding with the abundance of symmetrically dividing organisms in nature, we propose that additional constraints on cell growth and division must be present which are not included in our model, and we explore the effects of selected extensions thereof. Further, we find that within our model, epigenetically inherited generation times may arise due to size control in asymmetrically dividing cells, providing a possible explanation for recent experimental observations in budding yeast. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the complex effects generated by non-canonical growth morphologies.
The observation that phenotypic variability is ubiquitous in isogenic populations has led to a multitude of experimental and theoretical studies seeking to probe the causes and consequences of this variability. Whether it be in the context of antibiotic treatments or exponential growth in constant environments, non-genetic variability has shown to have significant effects on population dynamics. Here, we review research that elucidates the relationship between cell-to-cell variability and population dynamics. After summarizing the relevant experimental observations, we discuss models of bet-hedging and phenotypic switching. In the context of these models, we discuss how switching between phenotypes at the single-cell level can help populations survive in uncertain environments. Next, we review more fine-grained models of phenotypic variability where the relationship between single-cell growth rates, generation times and cell sizes is explicitly considered. Variability in these traits can have significant effects on the population dynamics, even in a constant environment. We show how these effects can be highly sensitive to the underlying model assumptions. We close by discussing a number of open questions, such as how environmental and intrinsic variability interact and what the role of non-genetic variability in evolutionary dynamics is.
We study heat conduction mediated by longitudinal phonons in one-dimensional disordered harmonic chains. Using scaling properties of the phonon density of states and localization in disordered systems, we find nontrivial scaling of the thermal conductance with the system size. Our findings are corroborated by extensive numerical analysis. We show that, suprisingly, the thermal conductance of a system with strong disorder, characterized by a “heavy-tailed” probability distribution, and with large impedance mismatch between the bath and the system, scales normally with the system size, i.e., in a manner consistent with Fourier's law. We identify a dimensionless scaling parameter, related to the temperature scale and the localization length of the phonons, through which the thermal conductance for different models of disorder and different temperatures follows a universal behavior.
In exponentially proliferating populations of microbes, the population doubles at a rate less than the average doubling time of a single-cell due to variability at the single-cell level. It is known that the distribution of generation times obtained from a single lineage is, in general, insufficient to determine a population’s growth rate. Is there an explicit relationship between observables obtained from a single lineage and the population growth rate? We show that a population’s growth rate can be represented in terms of averages over isolated lineages. This lineage representation is related to a large deviation principle that is a generic feature of exponentially proliferating populations. Due to the large deviation structure of growing populations, the number of lineages needed to obtain an accurate estimate of the growth rate depends exponentially on the duration of the lineages, leading to a nonmonotonic convergence of the estimate, which we verify in both synthetic and experimental data sets.
The generalized central limit theorem is a remarkable generalization of the central limit theorem, showing that the sum of a large number of independent, identically-distributed (i.i.d) random variables with infinite variance may converge under appropriate scaling to a distribution belonging to a special family known as Lévy stable distributions. Similarly, the maximum of i.i.d. variables may converge to a distribution belonging to one of three universality classes (Gumbel, Weibull and Fréchet). Here, we rederive these known results following a mathematically non-rigorous yet highly transparent renormalization-group-inspired approach that captures both of these universal results following a nearly identical procedure.
Cells must couple cell-cycle progress to their growth rate to restrict the spread of cell sizes present throughout a population. Linear, rather than exponential, accumulation of Whi5, was proposed to provide this coordination by causing a higher Whi5 concentration in cells born at a smaller size. We tested this model using the inducible GAL1 promoter to make the Whi5 concentration independent of cell size. At an expression level that equalizes the mean cell size with that of wild-type cells, the size distributions of cells with galactose-induced Whi5 expression and wild-type cells are indistinguishable. Fluorescence microscopy confirms that the endogenous and GAL1 promoters produce different relationships between Whi5 concentration and cell volume without diminishing size control in the G1 phase. We also expressed Cln3 from the GAL1 promoter, finding that the spread in cell sizes for an asynchronous population is unaffected by this perturbation. Our findings indicate that size control in budding yeast does not fundamentally originate from the linear accumulation of Whi5, contradicting a previous claim and demonstrating the need for further models of cell-cycle regulation to explain how cell size controls passage through Start.
Single-cell experiments have revealed cell-to-cell variability in generation times and growth rates for genetically identical cells. Theoretical models relating the fluctuating generation times of single cells to the population growth rate are usually based on the assumption that the generation times of mother and daughter cells are uncorrelated. This assumption, however, is inconsistent with the exponential growth of cell volume in time observed for many cell types. Here we develop a more general and biologically relevant model in which cells grow exponentially and generation times are correlated in a manner which controls cell size. In addition to the fluctuating generation times, we also allow the single-cell growth rates to fluctuate and account for their correlations across the lineage tree. Surprisingly, we find that the population growth rate only depends on the distribution of single-cell growth rates and their correlations.
Selection of mutants in a microbial population depends on multiple cellular traits. In serial-dilution evolution experiments, three key traits are the lag time when transitioning from starvation to growth, the exponential growth rate, and the yield (number of cells per unit resource). Here we investigate how these traits evolve in laboratory evolution experiments using a minimal model of population dynamics, where the only interaction between cells is competition for a single limiting resource. We find that the fixation probability of a beneficial mutation depends on a linear combination of its growth rate and lag time relative to its immediate ancestor, even under clonal interference. The relative selective pressure on growth rate and lag time is set by the dilution factor; a larger dilution factor favors the adaptation of growth rate over the adaptation of lag time. The model shows that yield, however, is under no direct selection. We also show how the adaptation speeds of growth and lag depend on experimental parameters and the underlying supply of mutations. Finally, we investigate the evolution of covariation between these traits across populations, which reveals that the population growth rate and lag time can evolve a nonzero correlation even if mutations have uncorrelated effects on the two traits. Altogether these results provide useful guidance to future experiments on microbial evolution.
The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus possesses a circadian clock in the form of a group of proteins whose concentrations and phosphorylation states oscillate with daily periodicity under constant conditions. The circadian clock regulates the cell cycle such that the timing of the cell divisions is biased toward certain times during the circadian period, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, we propose a mechanism in which a protein limiting for division accumulates at a rate proportional to the cell volume growth and is modulated by the clock. This “modulated rate” model, in which the clock signal is integrated over time to affect division timing, differs fundamentally from the previously proposed “gating” concept, in which the clock is assumed to suppress divisions during a specific time window. We found that although both models can capture the single-cell statistics of division timing in S. elongatus, only the modulated rate model robustly places divisions away from darkness during changes in the environment. Moreover, within the framework of the modulated rate model, existing experiments on S. elongatus are consistent with the simple mechanism that division timing is regulated by the accumulation of a division limiting protein in a phase with genes whose activity peaks at dusk.
In isogenic microbial populations, phenotypic variability is generated by a combination of stochastic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and deterministic factors, such as asymmetric segregation of cell volume. Here we address the question: how does phenotypic variability of a microbial population affect its fitness? While this question has previously been studied for exponentially growing populations, the situation when the population size is kept fixed has received much less attention, despite its relevance to many natural scenarios. We show that the outcome of competition between multiple microbial species can be determined from the distribution of phenotypes in the culture using a generalization of the well-known Euler–Lotka equation, which relates the steady-state distribution of phenotypes to the population growth rate. We derive a generalization of the Euler–Lotka equation for finite cultures, which relates the distribution of phenotypes among cells in the culture to the exponential growth rate. Our analysis reveals that in order to predict fitness from phenotypes, it is important to understand how distributions of phenotypes obtained from different subsets of the genealogical history of a population are related. To this end, we derive a mapping between the various ways of sampling phenotypes in a finite population and show how to obtain the equivalent distributions from an exponentially growing culture. Finally, we use this mapping to show that species with higher growth rates in exponential growth conditions will have a competitive advantage in the finite culture.
The single-celled green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with its two flagella - microtubule-based structures of equal and constant lengths - is the canonical model organism for studying size control of organelles. Experiments have identified motor-driven transport of tubulin to the flagella tips as a key component of their length control. Here we consider a class of models whose key assumption is that proteins responsible for the intraflagellar transport (IFT) of tubulin are present in limiting amounts. We show that the limiting-pool assumption is insufficient to describe the results of severing experiments, in which a flagellum is regenerated after it has been severed. Next, we consider an extension of the limiting-pool model that incorporates proteins that depolymerize microtubules. We show that this 'active disassembly' model of flagellar length control explains in quantitative detail the results of severing experiments and use it to make predictions that can be tested in experiments.
Adaptation, where a population evolves increasing fitness in a fixed environment, is typically thought of as a hill-climbing process on a fitness landscape. With a finite genome, such a process eventually leads the population to a fitness peak, at which point fitness can no longer increase through individual beneficial mutations. Instead, the ruggedness of typical landscapes due to epistasis between genes or DNA sites suggests that the accumulation of multiple mutations (via a process known as stochastic tunneling) can allow a population to continue increasing in fitness. However, it is not clear how such a phenomenon would affect long-term fitness evolution. By using a spin-glass type model for the fitness function that takes into account microscopic epistasis, we find that hopping between metastable states can mechanistically and robustly give rise to a slow, logarithmic average fitness trajectory.
MreB is an actin homolog that is essential for coordinating the cell wall synthesis required for the rod shape of many bacteria. Previously we have shown that filaments of MreB bind to the curved membranes of bacteria and translocate in directions determined by principal membrane curvatures to create and reinforce the rod shape (Hussain et al., 2018). Here, in order to understand how MreB filament dynamics affects their cellular distribution, we model how MreB filaments bind and translocate on membranes with different geometries. We find that it is both energetically favorable and robust for filaments to bind and orient along directions of largest membrane curvature. Furthermore, significant localization to different membrane regions results from processive MreB motion in various geometries. These results demonstrate that the in vivo localization of MreB observed in many different experiments, including those examining negative Gaussian curvature, can arise from translocation dynamics alone.